identify and describe the influence of attitude and perception on performance overall. Second, how should attitude and perception be built into an evaluation process? What are the legal pitfalls of doing this? Fairness issues? Measurable issues?
POST 1: Performance appraisals combine a variety of different venues within each evaluation. Team ratings, supervisor observations, self-rating, multi-source rating, etc. However, attitude and perception can also be built into an evaluation system, as well.
First, identify and describe the influence of attitude and perception on performance overall.
Performance appraisals can be influenced by the attitude and perception of both the employee and the supervisor. These may be negative or positive depending upon the circumstances. The employee may perceive his or her performance as exceptional while his or her supervisor may feel the employee is only developing, or not yet fully performing. Some of the reasons that performance is viewed so differently is due to the employee and the supervisor having very different views on what constitutes the varying degrees of performance. Some of the things that could be done to improve this perception and bring both the employee and the supervisor into agreement upon what is expected is a clear job description as well as clear expectations as to what it would take to be Exceptional, Exceeds Full Performance, Performing, and Developing, etc. When a clear picture is given, it is easier for the employee to have a goal, and it makes it more difficult for the supervisor to “bait and switch”.
Some of the other things that affect performance are “rater bias”, which occurs when a manager has a bias based on his or her own ideas about something to do with the employee, such as age, gender, religion or something else. Flynn suggests that when these biases occur, the manager’s supervisor should be involved in the process before the manager meets with the employee (p. 197, 2007). The opposite of this is the “halo effect” which occurs when a manager rates an employee higher based on a certain characteristic, while ignoring the big picture.
Second, how should attitude and perception be built into an evaluation process?
According to Flynn all organizations should utilize employee evaluation processes in order to meet the objectives of both the employee and the organization, for administrative uses and developmental uses (pgs.185, 189, 2007). Evaluations should be done in a fair and concise manner so that the employee is fully aware of what is expected of him or her before the evaluation, and in a timely manner so that he or she has time to fulfill the expectation, then the employee can enter in the evaluation with confidence and pride, knowing that they will have a great review. This could be accomplished through developing a performance improvement plan, in which the employee and the manager meet at the beginning of the year, discuss the action plans and make sure they are SMART goals; Specific, Measurable, Achievable, Relevant, and Timely, then they should discuss what those things entail and examples of what would be a full performing goal versus an exceptional goal. This will give the employee a solid idea of what needs to be done, and he or she can be confident in achieving the goals. The manager should meet with the employee throughout the year to discuss progress and assist if necessary. The employee will also be measured on his or her performance of job duties, how well they follow directions, attendance and punctuality, respectability, and ethical practices, such as honesty, regard for others, and ability to accept responsibility (Flynn, et. Al., p. 195, 2007)
What are the legal pitfalls of doing this? Fairness issues? Measurable issues?
The legal implications of performance appraisals are mainly pertaining to protecting the rights of employees and to adhere to the legal requirements of employers. Flynn lists the main legal concerns as “serious discipline or demotion interventions, public policy issues, contractual issues and tort liability issues, which are the main basis for employee claims against employers (p. 189, 2007). It is important the performance evaluation provide feedback and suggestions on improvement, as well as being constructive and supportive. In order to be fair, the manager should avoid using only recent criteria to rate the employee, and not be lenient or strict across the board. They should not be biased or rate the employee well unless they consider the entire performance of the employee. The employee should be free to voice his or her opinions and feel free to communicate with the manager honestly regarding the performance review. Lastly, it is very helpful to develop an improvement plan for the next year to give the employee guidance about working toward improvement. Even the best employee can improve on something.